Glossary

Glossary

Please click on any of the terms below for a brief description. 

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MINOR BLOOD FRACTIONS

  • ALBUMIN (HUMAN)  TOP 
    Made in the liver
    Protein obtained by fractionating plasma; makes up approximately 4% of plasma volume
    Used as a pharmaceutical to maintain or restore blood volume
    Used extensively in drug preparations such as erythropoietin, streptokinase due to its ability to bind and transport other substances safely within the body
  • CLOTTING FACTORS  TOP
    Any of various fractions of plasma involved in the coagulation of blood, including fibrinogen, prothrombin and calcium ions (mineral). Hereditary deficiency of clotting factors can cause coagulation disorders such as hemophilia
    Make up approximately 1% of plasma
    Cryoprecipitate is a small fraction of plasma that separates when plasma is frozen and then thawed.  It is used to replace several clotting factors at once
    Individual factors may be incorporated into any number of tissue sealant preparations
  • COLONY STIMULATING FACTORS  TOP
    Proteins that stimulate the bone marrow to produce new white blood cells
    As a drug, most of these preparations are synthetic. However, check with your doctor or pharmacist as to whether or not the preparation prescribed for you contains a small amount of albumin
    Brand name drugs: Leukine, Neulasta, Neupogen
  • CRYOPRECITPITATE  TOP
    A concentration of clotting factors derived from plasma, containing Factor VIII (protein), von Willebrand, Factor I (Fibrinogen), and other clotting factors.  Caution: "Cryo" can be prepared for administration with plasma or normal saline.  A patient should inquire about how the product is prepared if they wish to avoid plasma.
  • ERYTHROPOIETIN (EPO)  TOP
    Produced mainly in the kidneys in response to diminished oxygen in the blood
    Hormone that stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells (see Anemia)
    As a drug, these preparations are synthetic
    Some preparations of erythropoietin contain a small amount of albumin as a stabilizing agent. Albumin-free preparations are now available in the United States
  • FIBRINOGEN/FIBRIN  (FACTOR I)  TOP
    Fibrinogen is a protein secreted by the liver into blood plasma.  Fibrinogen is transformed to fibrin as part of the clotting process (coagulation) 
    A clotting factor prepared from human or bovine plasma
  • HEMOGLOBIN-BASED OXYGEN CARRIERS  TOP
    Hemoglobin molecules are removed from the red blood cells (bovine or human); filtered, chemically modified, purified, and mixed with a solution for packaging; as of May 2012 these products are not available 
    Performs the function of the primary component (red blood cells)
    Intended purpose: Treatment for acute anemia or severe blood loss
  • IMMUNOGLOBULINS or IMMUNE GLOBULINS (including gamma globulin)  TOP
    Proteins (antibodies) produced by plasma cells and lymphocytes in response to infection or toxins, making up approximately 3% of plasma
    Used in treatment of disease such as tetanus, rabies, Hepatitis B, and Rh incompatibility - see Passive Immunization
    Fractionated from pooled blood plasma
    Provides immediate antibody levels (immunity)
  • INTERFERON  TOP
    Proteins produced primarily by white cells in response to viral infection or other inducers; carried in plasma
    As a drug, most of these preparations are synthetic. However, check with your doctor or pharmacist as to whether or not the preparation prescribed for you contains a small amount of albumin
  • INTERLEUKIN  TOP
    A protein that enables communication among white blood cells and other cells active in inflammation or the specific immune response. The result is a maximized response to a microorganism or other foreign antigen (enhances the immune system)
    As a drug, these preparations are synthetic. However, check with your doctor/pharmacist as to whether or not the preparation prescribed for you contains a small amount of albumin
  • PROTHROMBIN/THROMBIN  (FACTOR II)  TOP
    A plasma protein produced in the liver in the presence of vitamin K and converted into thrombin by the action of various activators (as thromboplastin) in the clotting of blood
  • RH FACTOR (RHOGAM, etc)  TOP
    An immunoglobulin derived from pooled plasma
    A Rh negative mother may be exposed to her baby's Rh positive blood during pregnancy or delivery; treatment with Rho(D) immune globulin prevents the mother's antibodies from attacking the Rhesus (Rh) antigens of the current or subsequent pregnancy
  • SEALANTS  TOP
    Used to stop bleeding, as a result of surgery or trauma, in an area that is not easily sutured and to promote healing
    Many sealant products include minor fractions of blood or other animal derived products
    Examples of these are:
    Topical Thrombin (bovine)
    Gelfoam (non-blood product; from purified pork skin)
    Tisseel (human fibrinogen, human thrombin and bovine aprotinin)
    Bioglue (bovine albumin and glutaraldehyde)
    Coseal (non-blood product)
    Fibrin Glue (human fibrinogen and human thrombin)
    Platelet Gel, Autologous (platelets from patient's own blood, calcium, and thrombin)

Procedures


  • APHERESIS, PLASMAPHERESIS  TOP
    Infusion of a patient's own blood from which certain cellular or fluid elements (e.g., plasma, leukocytes, or platelets) have been removed.
    Plasmapheresis removes the plasma component of the blood and returns the other components to the patient.
  • BLOOD PATCH  TOP
    Treatment for a spinal headache. A small amount of patient blood (varies 10 - 30 ml) is removed by syringe and immediately re-injected into the patient's spinal column to help repair a leak in the membrane surrounding the spinal column.
  • BLOOD SALVAGE/CELL SALVAGE  PRINTABLE HANDOUT (PDF)  TOP
    Blood and tissue that enters the surgical field or wound is collected, separated, cleaned, and the red cells are returned to the patient.
    Post-operatively: Before the surgery is completed, a drain is inserted to salvage blood from the surgical site.  In the patient's room, the blood continuing to drain from the surgical site can be filtered and returned to the patient.
  • CELL TAGGING or LABELING  TOP
    This diagnostic procedure requires the removal of a very small amount of the patient's blood (less than 10 ml) by syringe. Radioisotopes are then mixed with this sample. This mixture is returned to the patient. This procedure may be used to determine the location of bleeding.
  • HEART-LUNG BYPASS  TOP
    Patient's venous blood supply (blood circulating from the body to the heart) is oxygenated and pumped by machine to arterial side (blood circulating away from the heart to the body), bypassing the heart and lungs during surgery.
  •  HEMODIALYSIS / DIALYSIS  TOP
    Patient's blood is cleaned by diverting it through the dialysis machine so that waste is drawn off and the blood is returned to the patient; machine serves as substitute kidney.
  • HEMODILUTION PRINTABLE HANDOUT (PDF)  TOP
    A predetermined amount of whole blood (calculated prior to surgery, based on expected blood loss and the patient's data) is withdrawn from the patient at the beginning of surgery and held in a reservoir in the operating room; can be kept constantly connected to the patient if required. The volume drawn off for reserve is replaced with a substitute, non-blood solution so that any blood loss during the surgery is reduced due to the dilution.
    The reserved blood may be used to supplement the patient's blood volume during the procedure as needed or returned to the patient at the end of the surgery as the substitute solution is eliminated
    The reserved blood must be returned within 8 hours or be discarded.  
  • PLATELET GEL, AUTOLOGOUS  TOP
    Platelet rich plasma is extracted from the patient's own blood (autologous), mixed with thrombin and calcium.  This substance is then applied to the bleeding site or to a wound to arrest bleeding and promote healing.

Blood-Related


  • ADVANCE DIRECTIVE / DURABLE POWER OF ATTORNEY FOR HEALTHCARE  TOP
    Formal Advance Directives are papers written and signed in advance, stating your choices for health care.
    "Health-Care Directive (Living Will)" - Limited to end of life decisions when the patient is terminally ill with no hope of recovery.
    "Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care" - An advance directive that appoints an agent or agents to speak in your behalf for health care matters if you are unable to speak for yourself. Often, a DPA will include instructions about your preferences of treatment such as refusal of blood transfusion, acceptance or rejection of minor blood fractions, or procedures involving the use of your own blood. It may also include end of life decisions. Your health care agent is bound by the choices you make on your DPA. However, your agent may be required to decide for you on matters you do not address.
    Your agent may be referred to as a "proxy", "agent", "health care agent", "attorney-in-fact", or "alternate health care agent."
    There are many forms available to document your advance directives and name a Durable Power of Attorney for Healthcare. You may write your own or employ a professional to draw up a document for you. You should use the form that most closely meets your need to communicate your wishes. Swedish provides a form for your use if you do not have one of your own. Learn more about Swedish DPA/Advance Directive.
    Learn more about, "What are some important considerations frequently overlooked on a DPA?"
  • ALLOGENEIC BLOOD  TOP
    Blood from another human donor ("allo" = different; as opposed to autologous).  May be used in reference to the transfusion of donor blood
  • ANEMIA  TOP
    Below normal level of hemoglobin or red blood cells. Learn more about Anemia Management
  • AUTOLOGOUS BLOOD  TOP
    An individual's own blood ("auto" = self; as opposed to allogeneic). Usually used in reference to the collection and administration of patient's own blood.
  • "BLOODLESS PROGRAM ENROLLMENT"   SAMPLE FORM (PDF)  TOP
    Swedish form to document a patient's refusal of blood transfusion and  the acceptance or refusal of minor blood fractions and procedures involving the use of the patient's own blood.
    This form communicates patient specific "bloodless" choices to all hospital staff involved in patient care.
    The form is scanned to the patient's chart
    The form can be updated at any time
  • COLLOIDS  TOP
    Intravenous fluids used to maintain fluid balances and circulation volume in the body e.g. gelatin, albumin, Dextran.
  • CRYSTALLOIDS  TOP
    Intravenous fluids made up of water with various dissolved salts and sugars. These fluids are used to help maintain circulating blood volume in the body, e.g. saline, normal saline, Ringers.
  • DURABLE POWER OF ATTORNEY FOR HEALTH CARE (DPA)   TOP
    See Advance Directive/DPA
  • ERYTHROCYTES  TOP
    Red blood cells
  • HEMATOCRIT  TOP
    Percentage of the red blood cells in sample of blood
    Lab values are stated as a percentage of blood volume, e.g. 33% equals a hematocrit of 33
    Chart of normal values
  • HEMOGLOBIN  TOP
    Complex protein molecule made in and carried by red blood cells (erythrocytes) giving the cell its red color. Primary function is to deliver oxygen. Each healthy red cell contains about 300 million molecules of hemoglobin.
    Lab values are stated in grams per deciliter e.g. 13 grams/deciliter equals a hemoglobin of 13
    Chart of normal values
  • HEMOPHILIA  TOP
    Inherited disease in which the person is deficient in clotting factor(s) and therefore is prone to bleeding
  • HEMOSTATIC DRUG THERAPY  TOP
    Pharmaceuticals used to stop bleeding
  • IMMUNIZATION, ACTIVE  TOP
    Active immunization is a result of infection by a microbe or other antigen. Antibodies are formed in the body in response to the infection and are "stored" or "remembered" by the immune system so the body does not get sick when exposed again.  The body is "immune" 
    Active immunization can occur naturally when a person comes into contact with the microbe or antigen in everyday life. The immune system responds by creating antibodies for the microbe, but this is a slow process and, if the microbe is deadly, there may not be enough time for the antibodies to begin being used before the infected person is disabled or sucumbs to the disease process.
    Artificial active immunization is achieved by injecting the microbe or antigen into the person before they are exposed naturally. The microbe is treated (weakened or killed) so that it will not harm the immunized person. Depending on the type of disease, this technique also works with dead microbes, parts of the microbe, or treated toxins from the microbe. Generally, immunization by vaccine does not involve blood products or fractions.
  • IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE  TOP
    Passive immunization is the transfer of readymade antibodies (immunoglobulins), such as from a mother to the fetus across the placenta, or from a donor source to the recipient as in the case of Hepatitis B or tetanus. This method of immunization begins to work very quickly, but it is short term, because the antibodies are naturally broken down and not stored for later use.
    Artificial passive immunization is normally given by injection and is used if there has been a recent outbreak of a particular disease, or as an emergency treatment to counteract poisons or venoms. Antibodies are produced in animals or humans; some immunoglobins can be produced in a laboratory.  Antibodies from animal or human sources are fractionated from plasma
  • IMPLIED CONSENT/EMERGENCY  TOP
    In an emergency, a patient's condition may be such that he is unable to make an informed decision and the consent of another person qualified to represent him is not reasonably available. In this case, consent to treatment is implied by law and an express consent is not required1
    An emergency implies:
    the patient has presented with a life-threatening illness or injury, such that immediate treatment is necessary to preserve life, or to prevent serious impairment, deterioration or aggravation of the patient's condition; and
    the patient is unable to communicate or take part in a communication process; and
    there is no time to secure a treatment authorization from someone else who might be empowered by law to act on the patient's behalf. When surrounding circumstances exist that could lead a reasonable person to believe that consent would be given, although no direct, express or explicit words of agreement had been uttered
  • LEUKOCYTES  TOP
    White blood cells
  • PLASMA  TOP
    One of the four primary components of blood. See Composition of Blood (PDF)
    The straw colored liquid portion of blood consisting of water, proteins, electrolytes, glucose, fats, vitamins, and hormones. The formed elements of blood (red cells, white cells, and platelets) are suspended in plasma
    Composed of 91.5% water, 7% proteins, 1.5% other substances e.g. sugars, salts, mineral, wastes 
  • PLATELETS  TOP
    One of the four primary components of blood. See Composition of Blood (PDF)
    Primary component in clot formation
    Formed in the bone marrow
  • RECOMBINANT (SYNTHETIC)  TOP
    Recombinant technology makes possible the synthesis of complex organic compounds without traditional donors by:
    Isolating and copying the genetic code segment for the production of the compound
    Inserting the code into single celled organisms (recombines the copied genetic material = "recombinant")
    Reproducing large quantities of the modified organisms
    Harvesting the compound produced by the organisms
    Packaging and distributing the compound for therapeutic use
    Many of the drugs used today rely on this artificial or synthetic production of complex organic compounds. Erythropoietin is one of these drugs
  •  RED BLOOD CELLS (RBC)  TOP
    One of the four primary components of blood. See Composition of Blood (PDF)
    Each RBC carries approximately 300 million hemoglobin molecules necessary for delivering oxygen to the tissues
    Formed in the bone marrow
  • THROMBOCYTES  TOP
    Platelets
  • VOLUME EXPANDERS  TOP
    Fluids administered intravenously to enhance the circulation of a patient's own blood
    Colloids
    Crystalloids
  • WHITE BLOOD CELLS  (WBC)  TOP
    One of the four primary components of blood. See Composition of Blood (PDF)
    There is a wide variety of white blood cells (neutrophils, lymphocytes, etc.)
    Play a primary role in the immune system
    Formed in the bone marrow


1 Revised Code of Washington 18.17.220

Contact Information

Blood Management Program
500 17th Avenue
Seattle, WA 98122
Phone: 206-320-2358
Map & Directions

Zac Zahara
MBA, CQA (ASQ), manager

Jan Batt,
RN, BSN, coordinator

Dawn Peterson,
RN, BSN, coordinator

Harriette Lober,
Bloodless Program specialist

Department Directory
206-320-2358
Bloodless Program
206-320-8094
Toll-Free
888-662-4166
  • Cherry Hill
    500 17th Avenue, Room A93C
    Seattle, WA  98122
  • First Hill
    747 Broadway, Room NN-331
    Seattle, WA 98122