My primary area of clinical research is the use of the Gamma Knife to treat functional brain disorders such as Trigeminal Neuralgia, movement disorders and chronic pain.
1. Ausman JI, Young RF, and Owens G: Radiopaque dyes and other agents in the production of endothelial damage. J Surg Res 1964 5:349-355.
2. Young RF and King RF: Excitability changes in trigeminal primary afferent fibers in response to noxious and non-noxious stimuli. J Neurophysiol 1972 Jan; 35(1): 87-95.
3. Young RF and King RB: Excitability changes in trigeminal primary afferent fibers elicited by dental pulp stimulation in the cat. Arch Oral Biol 1972 Dec; 17(12): 1649-1657.
4. Young RF, Yu YJ, and King RB: Hyperpolarization of trigeminal primary afferent fibers elicited by non-facial stimuli. Surg Forum 1972; 23(0): 426-427.
5. Young RF and King RB: Fiber spectrum of the trigeminal sensory root of the baboon determined by electron microscopy. J Neurosurg 1973 Jan; 38(1): 65-72.
6. Young RF, Yu YJ, and King RB: Hyperpolarization of trigeminal afferents evoked by stimulation of lumbar sympathetic trunk and peripheral nerves. Exp Neurol 1973 Jan; 38(1): 64-69.
7. Lourie H and Young RF: Posterior epidural hematoma following subfrontal tumor removal. Case report. J Neurosurg 1974 May; 40(5): 643-646.
8. Nord SG and Young RF: Projection of tooth pulp afferents to the cat trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Brain Res 1975 June 13; 90(2): 195-204.
9. Young RF and Nord SG: Experimental modulation of medullary dental pulp units by mechanical stimulation of orofacial fields. Exp Neurol 1975 Dec; 49(3): 813-821.
10. Young RF and Shende M: Dorsal column stimulation for the relief of chronic intractable pain. Surg Forum 1976; 27(62): 474-476.
11. Bond D and Young RF: Electrophrenic respiration in a patient with sleep-induced apnea. J Neurosurg Nursing 1977; 9:118-121.
12. Young RF: Treatment of facial pain. The Practitioner 1977 Nov; 219(1313): 731-737.
13. Young RF and Binet EF: Bilateral persistent trigeminal arteries: Case report. J Neurosurg 1977 Oct; 47(4): 619-622.
14. Young RF: Diaphragm pacing as an adjunct in the care of respiratory insufficiency. Neurosurg 1978 Jan-Feb; 2(1): 43-46.
15. Young RF: Response properties of neurons in trigeminal nucleus caudalis too noxious and innocuous
stimuli under chloralose anesthesia. Exp Neurol 1978 Feb; 58(3): 521-534.
16. Young RF: Evaluation of dorsal column stimulation in the treatment of chronic pain. Neurosurg 1978 Nov-Dec; 3(3): 373-379.
17. Young RF: Unmyelinated fibers in the trigeminal motor root. Possible relationship to the results of trigeminal rhizotomy. J Neurosurg 1978 Oct; 49(4): 538-543.
18. Young RF and Nord SG: Response patterns of neurons in rostral trigeminal nuclei to noxious and innocuous stimuli after chronic tractotomy. Surg Forum 1978; 29:493-495.
19. Goodman SJ and Young RF: Dorsal column stimulation in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Surg
Forum 1978; 29:507-509.
20. Morgan D, Young RF, Chow AW, Mehringer CM, and Itabashi H: Recurrent blastomycetic granuloma: Diagnosis and treatment. Neurosurg 1979 Apr; 4(4): 319-324.
21. Nord SG and Young RF: Effects of chronic descending tractotomy on the response patterns of neurons in the trigeminal nuclei principalis and oralis. Exp Neurol 1979 Aug; 65(2): 355-372.
22. Young RF: Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea following nasogastric intubation. J Trauma 1979 Oct; 19(10): 789-791.
23. Young RF and Feldman RA: Metastatic tumors of the spine. J Neurosurg 1979 Apr; 50(4): 536-537.
24. Young RF and Goodman SJ: Dorsal spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Neurosurg 1979 Aug; 5(2): 225-230.
25. Young RF and Stevens RT: Unmyelinated axons in the trigeminal nerve root of human and cat. J Comp Neurol 1979; 183:205-214.
26. Kazimiroff PB, Weichsel ME, Young RF, and Grinnell V: Acute cerebellar hemorrhage in childhood. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Neurosurg 1980 May; 6(5): 524-528.
27. Morgan DF and Young RF: Spinal neurological complications of achondroplasia results of surgical treatment. J Neurosurg 1980 Apr; 52(4): 463-472.
28. Young RF: Cerebellar astrocytoma presenting as a cerebellar hemorrhage in a child. Neurology 1980; 30:1020-1021.
29. Young RF, Post E, and King GA: Treatment of spinal epidural metastases - Randomized prospective comparison of laminectomy and radiotherapy. J Neurosurg 1980 Dec; 53(6):741-748.
30. Krettek JE and Young RF: Acute intracranial hemorrhage in childhood: Diagnosis and treatment. Comp Therapy 1981 Oct; 7(10): 55-66.
31. Young RF and Kruger L: Axonal transport studies of the trigeminal nerve roots of the cat, with special reference to afferent contributions to the portio minor. J Neurosurg 1981 Feb; 54(2): 208-212.
32. Young RF, Oleson TD, and Perryman KM: Effect of trigeminal tractotomy on behavioral responses to dental pulp stimulation in monkey. J Neurosurg 1981 Sept; 55(3): 420-423.
33. Young RF, Oleson TD, and Perryman KM: Dental and facial pain sensation in human and non-human primates: Effect of trigeminal tractotomy. Acta Neurochir 1981; 59:276.
34. Young RF and Perryman KM: Potentials evoked in thalamic nuclei of Macaques by electrical stimulation of dental pulp: Effect of trigeminal tractotomy. Surg Forum 1981; 32:494-496.
35. Young RF and Perryman KM: Potentials evoked in thalamic nuclei by dental pulp and cutaneous facial stimulation in awake, unanesthetized Macaque. Pain 1981; Suppl 1:5243.
36. Young RF and Feldman RA: Periaqueductal grey matter and thalamic stimulation in the treatment of
chronic pain. Acta Neurochir 1982; 62:147.
37. Young RF: Effect of trigeminal tractotomy on dental sensation in human. J Neurosurg 1982 Jun; 56(6): 812-818.
38. Young RF, Yoshimori RN, Murray DL, and Chou PJ: Postoperative neurosurgical infections due to Bacillus species. Surg Neurol 1982 Oct; 18(4):271-273.
39. Young RF, Schanker LM, and Cahan LC: Effect of midbrain stimulus-induced analgesia on immune function in humans. J Neuroimmunol 1983; 5:185-189.
40. Young RF and Frazee J: Gas within intracranial abscess cavities: An indication for surgical excision. Ann of Neurol 1984 Jul; 16(1):35-39.
41. Young RF and Perryman KM: Pathways for orofacial pain sensation in the trigeminal brainstem nuclear complex of the Macaque monkey. J Neurosurg 1984 Sep; 61(3):563-568.
42. Dionne RA, Mueller GP, and Young RF, et al: Contrast medium causes the apparent increase in
B-endorphin levels in human cerebrospinal fluid following brain stimulation. Pain 1984 Dec; 20(4):313-321.
43. Gade GF, Young RF: Minor head injury. Prim Care 1984 Dec; 11(4):667-679.
44. Young RF, Kroening R, Fulton W, Feldman RA, and Chambi I: Electrical stimulation of the brain in the treatment of chronic pain: Experience over five years. J Neurosurg 1985 Mar;62(3):389-396.
45. Young RF, Gade GF, and Grinnell V: Surgical treatment of fungal infections in the central nervous system. J Neurosurg 1985 Sep; 63(3):371-381.
46. Young RF: Surgical role in relief of pain. Seminars in Anesthesia IV: 1985; (4)323-331.
47. Young RF and Brechner T: Electrical stimulation of the brain for relief of intractable pain due to cancer. Cancer 1986 Mar 15; 57(6):1266-1272.
48. Young RF: Chronic benign pain management: Epitomes of progress. Western J Med 1986 Jul;83.
49. Feurman T, Dwan PS, and Young RF: Vertebrectomy for treatment of vertebral hemangioma without preoperative embolization. Case Report. J Neurosurg 1986 Sep; 65(3):404-406.
50. Young RF and Perryman KM: Neuronal responses in rostral trigeminal brainstem nuclei of Macaque monkeys after chronic trigeminal tractotomy. J Neurosurg 1986 Oct; 65(4):508-516.
51. Young RF and Chambi I: Pain relief by electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal and periventricular gray matter: Evidence for a nonopioid mechanism. J Neurosurg 1987 Mar; 66(3):364-371.
52. Young RF and Lawner PM: Perioperative antibiotics prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative neurosurgical infections: A randomized clinical trial. J Neurosurg 1987 May; 66(5):701-705.
53. Young RF: Application of robotics to stereotactic neurosurgery. Neurological Research 1987 Jun; 9(2):123-128.
54. Young RF: Glycerol rhizolysis for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg 1988 Jul; 69(1):39-45.
55. Young RF: Functional stereotactic neurosurgery with magnetic resonance imaging guidance. J Mind and Behavior 1988; 9:263-272.
56. Young RF: Brain and spinal stimulation: How and to whom! Clin Neurosurg 1989; 35:429-447.
57. Shen WP, Young RF, Walter BN, Choi BH, Smith M, Katz J, et al: Molecular analysis of a myxoid chondrosarcoma with rearrangements of chromosomes 10 and 22. Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 1990 Apr; 45(2):207-215.
58. Young RF: Clinical experience with radiofrequency and laser DREZ lesions. J Neurosurg 1990 May; 72(5):715-720.
59. Leake D, Habal M, Young RF, Anderson F: Bone grafting for cranial reconstruction. J of Craniofacial Surg 1990; 3:135-142.
60. Young RF: Brain stimulation. Neurosurg Clin N Am 1990 Oct; 1(4):865-879.
61. Shen WP, Chaparro M, Choi BH, Young RF, et al: Absence of isochromosome 12p in a pineal region malignant germ cell tumor. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1990; 50:153-160.
62. Rinaldi PC, Young RF, Albe-Fessard D, Chodakiewitz J, et al: Spontaneous neuronal hyperactivity in the intralaminar thalamic nuclei of patients with deafferentation pain. J Neurosurg 1991 Mar; 74(3):415-421.
63. Waxman K, Sundine MJ, Young RF: Is early prediction of outcome in severe head injury possible? Arch Surg 1991 Oct; 126(10):1237-1241. Discussion 1242.
64. Schickner DJ, Young RF:Intracranial pressure monitoring: Fiberoptic monitor compared with the ventricular catheter. Surg Neurol 1992 Apr; 37(4):251-254.
65. Young RF, Tronnier VM, Rinaldi PC: Chronic stimulation of the nucleus Koelliker fuse region for relief of intractable pain in humans. J Neurosurg 1992 Jun; 76(6):979-985.
66. Chaparro MG, Young RF, Smith M, Shen V, Choi BH: Multiple spinal meningiomas: A case of 47 distinct lesions in the absence of neurofibromatosis or identified chromosomal abnormality. Neurosurg1993 Feb; 32(2):298-301. Discussion 301-302.
67. Young RF, Bach FW, Van Norman AS, Yaksh TL: Release of ß-endorphin and methionine-enkephalin into cerebrospinal fluid during deep brain stimulation for chronic pain. J Neurosurg 1993 Dec; 79(6):816-825.
68. Young RF, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Copcutt BC, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz AE: Medial Thalamotomy with the Leksell Gamma Knife for Treatment of Chronic Pain, Advances in Radiosurgery, Acta Neurochir 1994; Suppl 62 (Wien):105-110.
69. Young RF, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Copcutt BC, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz, AE: Technique of Stereotactic Medial Thalamotomy with the Leksell Gamma Knife for Treatment of Chronic Pain, Neurol Research 1995 Feb; 17(1):59-65.
70. Young RF: Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal nerve root for the treatment of chronic facial pain. J Neurosurg 1995 Jul; 83(1):72-78.
71. Hiesiger EM, Gren SB, Shapiro WR, Burger PC, Selker RG, Mahaley J, Roberts JT, Hochberg FH, Young RF: Results of a randomized trial comparing intra-arterial cisplatin and intravenous PCNU for the treatment of primary brain tumors in adults: Brain tumor cooperative group trial 8420A. J of Neuro Oncol 1995; 25:143-154.
72. Young RF, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Copcutt BC, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz AE: Gamma Knife Thalamotomy for the Treatment of Persistent Pain, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1995; 64 Suppl 1:172- 181.
73. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz AE, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Duma CM, Copcutt BC, Henderson J, Bolles GE, Breeze RE, Johnson SD, Pribil SG: Abstract. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Treatment of Multiple Brain Metastases, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1995; 64:92-93.
74. Young RF, Jacques DB, Duma CM, Rand RW, Henderson J, Vermeulen SS, Grimm P, Blasko JC,
Posewitz A, Copcutt BC, Bolles GE, Breeze RE, Pribil SG, Winston K, Johnson SD: Gamma Knife
Radiosurgery for Treatment of Multiple Brain Metastases: A Comparison of Patients with Single versus Multiple Lesions, Radiosurg 1996; 92-101.
75. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz A, Grimm P, Blasko J, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Copcutt BC: Functional Neurosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, Radiosurg 1996; 218-228.
76. Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Duma CM, Jacques DB, Rand RW, Regis J, Peragut JC, Epstein MH, Lindquist C: Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia: A Multi-Institution Study Using the Gamma Unit, J Neurosurg 1996 Jun; 84(6):940-945.
77. Young RF: Functional Neurosurgery with the Leksell Gamma Knife, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1996; 66(1-3):19-23.
78. Friehs GM, Noren G, Ohye C, Duma CM, Marks R, Plombon J, Young RF: Lesion size following Gamma Knife treatment for functional disorders. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1996; 66 Suppl 1:320-328.
79. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Grimm P, Posewitz A: Electrophysiological target localization is not required for the treatment of functional disorders, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg 1996; 66 Suppl 1:309-319.
80. Larson DA, Gutin PH, McDermott M, Lamborn K, Sneed PK, Wara WM, Flickinger JC, Kondziolka D, Lunsford LD, Hudgins WR, Friehs GM, Haselsberger K, Leber K, Pendl G, Chung SS, Coffey RJ, Dinapoli R, Shaw EG, Vermeulen S, Young RF, Hirato M, Inouhe HK, Ohye C, Shibazaki T: Gamma Knife for glioma: Selection factors and survival. Comment in: Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996 Dec 1; 36(5):1279-1280 and Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996 Dec 1; 36(5):1045-1053.
81. Sehgal A, Keener C, Boynton AL, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Yonemura K, Kohler EP, Murphy GP, Characterization of C4-2 as a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Human Brain Tumors, J Surg Oncol 1997 Feb; 64(2):102-108.
82. Young RF: Gamma Knife Radiosurgery as a Lesioning Technique for Movement Disorder Surgery, LD Lunsford, topic ed, JA Jane, ed, Neurosurgical Focus 1997 Mar; 3(3).
83. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Grimm P, Blasko J, Posewitz A: Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: idiopathic and tumor related. Neurology 1997 ; 48(3):608-614.
84. Sehgal A, Keener C, Boynton AL, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Yonemura K, Kohler EP, Murphy GP: Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Gene From Human Glioiblastoma Multiforme Tumor Tissue, Int. J. Cancer 1997 May 16; 71(4):565-572.
85. Sehgal A, Ricks S, Keener C, Boynton A, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Yonemura K, Kohler EP, Aldape HC, Simrell CR, Murphy GP: Cloning, sequence and developmental expression analysis of C4-2, a potential brain tumor-suppressor gene. J Surg Oncol 1997 Aug; 65(4):249-257.
86. Young RF: Radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastases. Seminars in Surgical Oncology 1998 Jan-Feb; 14(1):70-78.
87. Sehgal A, Boynton AL, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Yonemura KS, Kohler EP, Aldape HC, Simrell CR, Murphy GP: Application of the differential hybridization of Atlas human expression arrays technique in the identification of differentially expressed genes in human glioblastoma multiforme tumor tissue, J Surg Oncol 1998 Apr; 67(4):234-241.
88. Young RF: The Role of the Gamma Knife in the Treatment of Malignant Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors, CA Cancer J Clin 1998 May-Jun; 48(3):177-188.
89. Sehgal A, Boynton AL, Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Yonemura KS, Kohler EP, Aldape HC, Simrell CR, Murphy GP: Cell adhesion molecule Nr-CAM is over-expressed in human brain tumors. Int J Cancer 1998 May 18; 76(4):451-458.
90. Young RF, Shumway-Cook A, Vermeulen SS, Grimm P, Blasko J, Posewitz A, Burkhart WA, Goiney RC: Gamma Knife radiosurgery as a lesioning technique in movement disorder surgery. J Neurosurg 1998 Aug; 89(2):183-193.
91. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz A.: Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the treatment of trigeminal
neuralgia, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 1998; 70 (Suppl 1):192-199.
92. Young RF, Vermeulen SS, Posewitz A, Shumway-Cook A.: Pallidotomy with the Gamma Knife: a positive experience, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg,1998; 70 (Suppl 1):218-228.
93. Vermeulen SS, Young RF, Posewitz A, Grimm P, Blasko J, Kohler E.: Stereotactic radiosurgery
toxicity in the treatment of intracanalicular acoustic neuromas: the Seattle Northwest Gamma Knife experience, Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 1998; 70 (Suppl 1):80-87.
94. Vermeulen SS, Young RF, Li,F, Meier R, Raisis J, Klein S, Kohler E.: A Comparison of Single Fraction Radiosurgery Tumor Control and Toxicity in the Treatment o Basal and Nonbasal Meningiomas, Sterotact Funct Neurosurg, 1999;72 (Suppl 1) 60-65.
95. Young RF, Jacques S, Mark R, Kopyov O, Copcutt B, Posewits A, Li,F: Gamma knife thalamotomy for treatment of tremor: long-term results, J Neurosurg, (Suppl 3) 2000; 93: 128-135.
96. Young RF. Gamma Knife Treatment for Movement Disorders, Seminars in Neurosurgery,2001,Volume 12: 233-243.
97. Rasche D, Rinaldi, PC, Young, RF, Tronnier, VM: Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of various chronic pain syndromes, Neurosurg Focus, 2006, Volume 21: 1-8.
98. Young RF, Li, Francisco, Vermuelen Sandra, Meier, Robert.: Gamma Knife thalamotomy for treatment of essential tremor: long-term results. J. Neurourg. November 06, 2009.
1. Young RF and Feldman RA: Spinal Cord Injury: Case Studies. Medical Examination Publishing Co., Inc., Flushing, New York, 428 pages, 1981.
1. Young RF (guest editor), Binet EF, Heitzman RF, and Markarian B (editors): Foramen magnum lesion: Correlation conference in radiology/pathology. NY State J Med, 1972; 72:1844-1847.
2. Young RF and King RF: Trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, in Current Diagnosis. Conn HF and Conn RF, Jr., editors. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1974; 886-889.
3. Young RF and King RB: Trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia, in Current Therapy. Conn HF and Conn RB, Jr., editors. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1975; 713-721.
4. Young RF: Fiber spectrum of the trigeminal sensory root of frog, cat, and human, determined by electron microscopy, in Pain in the Trigeminal Region. Anderson DJ and Matthews E, editors. Biomedical Press:Elsevier,North Holland, 1977; 137-148.
5. Feldman RA and Young RF: Management of gunshot wounds of the spine. Contemporary Neurosurgery. Tindall G, editor. Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore, 1980; 2:1-6.
6. Kruger L and Young RF: Specialized features of the trigeminal nerves and its central connections, in The Cranial Nerves. Samii M and Jannetta PJ, editors. Springer-Verlag, 1981; 273-301.
7. Young RF and Feldman RA: Metastases to the central nervous system: Diagnosis and treatment, in Oncology. Block J, editor. Wiley & Sons, 1982; 269-307.
8. Gade GF and Young RF: Minor head injury, in Primary Care Clinics and Office Practice. Symposium on Clinical Neurology. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1984; 667-679.
9. Young RF, Feldman RA, Kroening R, et al: Electrical stimulation of the brain in the treatment of chronic pain in man, in Advances in Pain Research and Therapy. Kruger L and Liebeskind JC, editors. Raven Press:New York, 1984; 6:289-303.
10. Young RF: Diaphragm pacing, in Neurosurgery. Wilkins, M.D., RH and Rengachary, M.D., SS, editors. McGraw Hill:New York, 1985; 1733-1734.
11. Young RF and Modesti L: Stereotactic ablative procedures for pain relief, in Neurosurgery. Wilkins, M.D., RH and Rengachary, M.D., SS, editors. McGraw Hill:New York, 1985; 2454-2457.
12. Young RF: Stereotactic methods in management of pain, in Concepts in Neurosurgery, Stereotactic Neurosurgery. Heilbrun MP, editor. Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore, 1988; 2:149-160.
13. Young RF: A robotic system for stereotactic neurosurgery, in Modern Stereotactic Neurosurgery. Lundsford LD, editor. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, B.V.:The Hague, 1988; 259-266.
14. Young RF: Possible applications of robotics to the neurosurgical operating room, in Neurosurgery: State of the Art Reviews. Michael Apuzzo, editor. Hanley & Belfus:Philadelphia, 1988; 3:265-274.
15. Young RF: Brain stimulation, in Textbook of Pain, 2nd edition. Wall PD, editor. Churchill Livingstone:London, 1989; 925-929.
16. Young RF: Cordotomy by open operative techniques, in Neurological Surgery, 3rd edition. Youmans JR, editor. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1989; 4059-4069.
17. Young RF: Dorsal rhizotomy and dorsal root ganglionectomy, in Neurological Surgery, 3rd edition. Youmans JR, editor. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1989; 4026-4035.
18. King RB and Young RF: Cephalic pain, in Neurological Surgery, 3rd edition. Youmans JR, editor. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1989; 3856-3879.
19. Young RF: Trigeminal nerve and its central pathways - Physiology of facial sensation and pain, in Trigeminal Neuralgia. Rovit R, editor. Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore, 1990; 27-51.
20. Young RF: Arachnoiditis - Treatment by brain stimulation, in Common Problems in Pain Management. Breckner T, editor. Year Book Medical Publishers:Chicago, 1990; 204-208.
21. Young RF: Trigeminal neuralgia, in Common Problems in Pain Management. Breckner T, editor. Year Book Medical Publishers:Chicago, 1990; 51-55.
22. Young RF: Brain stimulation, in Neurosurgical Clinics of North America. Friedman WF, editor. WB Saunders:Philadelphia, 1990; 865-880.
23. Young RF: Chronic Pain problems, in Neurosurgical Consultations. G. Tindall, ed. Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore, 1991; 1-6.
24. Young RF: Chronic pain, in Reoperative Neurosurgery. Little JR and Awad IA, editors. Williams & Wilkins:Cleveland, 1992; 303-338.
25. Young RF: Percutaneous glycerol trigeminal rhizotomy, in Neurosurgical Operative Atlas, AANS :SS Rengachary, RH Wilkins editors. Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore, 1991; 127-133.
26. Young RF and Kwoh YS: Robotic-aided surgery, in Computers in Stereotactic Neurosurgery. Kelly PJ, editor. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Inc.:Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1992; 320-329.
27. Young RF: Stereotactic surgical ablation for pain relief, in Neurosurgical Operative Atlas,: SS Rengachary, RH Wilkins editors.Williams & Wilkins:Baltimore,1992; 177-188.
28. Young RF, Rinaldi P: Brain stimulation and relief of chronic pain, in Textbook of pain, 3rd edition. P.D. Wall, R. Melzak, eds., Churchill Livingstone: London, 1994; 1225-1233.
29. Young RF: Intracranial procedures for pain management, in Brain Surgery: Complication Avoidance and Management. Apuzzo M, ed. Churchill Livingstone: New York, 1993 :1497-1508.
30. Young RF: Stereotactic procedures for facial pain, in Brain Surgery: Complication Avoidance and Management. Apuzzo M, ed. Churchill Livingstone:New York, 1993 :2097-2114.
31. Young RF: Deep brain stimulation in the management of pain, in Management of Cancer Related Pain. Arbit E, ed. Futura: New York, 1993; 257-269.
32. Young RF: Periaqueductal and Periventricular Stimulation for Pain, in Neurological Surgery. Youmans JR, ed. W.B. Saunders Company: Philadelphia, 1995; 3528-3540.
33. Young RF: Dorsal Rhizotomy and Dorsal Root Ganglionectomy, in Neurological Surgery. Youmans JR, ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Phildelphia, 1995; 3442-3451.
34. Young RF, Rinaldi P: Stereotactic ablative procedures for pain relief, in Neurosurgery. Wilkins RH & Rengachary SS, eds., 2nd edition McGraw-Hill, New York, 1996; 4061-4065.
35. Young RF: Sympathetic nervous system and pain, in The Practice of Neurosurgery. Tindall GT, Cooper PR, Barrow DL, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996; 3009-3019.
36. Young RF: Brain stimulation for treatment of chronic pain, in The Practice of Neurosurgery. Tindall GT, Cooper PR, Barrow DL, eds., Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, 1996; 3081-3089.
37. Young RF: Functional Disease of the Brain: Treatment by Gamma Knife Radiosurgery, Minimally Invasive Therapy of the Brain, DeSalles A, Lufkin R, eds., Thieme, New York, 1997, 225-234.
38. Young RF, Rinaldi P: Brain stimulation, in Neurosurgical Management of Pain. R.M.Levy, R.B. North, eds., Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996; 65-83.
39. Young RF: Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain, in Current Review of Pain 2nd ed, Aronoff GM, Parris WCV, Pawl RP, Raj PP, eds., Vol. 1, Number 3, Current Science, Philadelphia, 1997.
40. Young RF: Stereotactic radiosurgery of the trigeminal nerve root for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, in Neurosurgical Operative Atlas Volume 7. S. Rengchary, R. Wilkins, eds., American Association of Neurological Surgeons Publications, 1997; 87-91.
41. Young RF: Deep brain stimulation for failed back, in Textbook of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery. P.L. Gildenberg, R.R. Tasker, eds., McGraw- Hill, Inc., Health Professions Division, 1998; 1621-1625.
42. Young RF, Radiosurgery versus Microsurgery for Trigeminal Neuralgia, Current Techniques in Neurosurgery. M Salcman, ed, Current Medicine, Inc., Springer, 1998; 35-43.
43. Young RF, Posewitz A, Non-Invasive Lesioning: Functional Radiosurgery. In Alexander EB III and Maciunas RM, eds. Advanced Neurosurgical Navigation. New York: Thieme, 1999; 41:507-517.
44. Young RF. Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia by radiosurgery with the Gamma Knife. In: Fisher WS, ed. Perspectives in Neurological Surgery, New York: Thieme, 1999; 9(2):1-16.
45. Young RF. Clinical applications: Pain, Movement Disorders, and Epilepsy. In: Germano IM, ed. LINAC and Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Park Ridge, Illinois, American Association of Neurological Surgeons: 2000; 231-252.
46. Young RF. Ablative Brain Operations for Chronic Pain: Loeser JD, ed. Bonica's Management of Pain. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001; 2048-2066.
47. Young RF. The Gamma Knfie in Movement Disorder Surgery. In Lozano AM, ed Movement Disorder Surgery Progress and Challenges, Basel: Karger, 1999.
48. Young RF. Gamma Knife Treatment for Movement Disorders. In Seminars in Neurosurgery, ed Advances in Neurosurgical Treatment of Movement Disorders. New York: Thieme, 2001, 12(2): 233-243.
49. Young RF., Jacques, Dean B., Radiosurgery for Pain. In: Batjer HH and Loftus CM, eds. Textbook of Neurological Surgery, Philadelphia: Lippincott William & Wilkins, 2003, 304, 2079-2085
50. Young RF., Radiosurgery for Pain Management, IN: Follett, K., ed., Neurosurgical Pain Management, Elsevier Saunders, 2003, 29, 237-244
51. Young, RF, Trigeminal Neuralgia, in Conn’s Current Therapy: 59th Edition, Rakel, RE and Bope, ET, Eds, W. Bsaunder, 2007.
52. Young RF; Gamma Knife, in: Movement Disorder Surgery: The Essentials, Bakay, R.A., Ed, Thieme, New York, 2008, 16, 237-242.
53. Young, RF. Trigeminal Neuralgia in: Conn’s Current Therapy 2012 Edition, Bope, ET and
Kellerman, R. Ed’s, Elsevier, New York, 2012.
MANUSCRIPTS SUBMITTED FOR PUBLICATION
1. Young, RF; Sereotactic Radiosurgery for Movement Disorders, in Neurosurgical Operative Atlas 2E: Functional Neurosurgery. Starr,P, Barbaro,N, Larson,P, editors, Thieme, New York.
2. Young, RF; Stereortactic Radosurgery of the Trigeminal Nerve root for Treatment of TrigeminalNeuralgia, in Neurosurgical Operative atlas 2E: Functional Neursurgery. Starr,P, Barbaro,N, Larson,P, editors, Theime, New York.
MANUSCRIPTS IN PROGRESS
1. Young, RF, et al, Functional Lesions made in the Human Central Nervous System with LINAC Radiosurgery.
2. Young, RF, et al, Bilateral Gamma Knife Lesioning for treatment of Movement Disorders.
ABSTRACTS, EDITORIALS, AND BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS
1. Young RF: Response properties of dental pulp neurons in trigeminal nucleus caudalis under chloralose anesthesia. Neurosci Abstr 2:927, 1976.
2. Nord SG and Young RF: The effect of chronic tractotomy upon the response patterns of sensory neurons in rostral trigeminal nuclei. Neurosci Abstr 3:488, 1977.
3. Young RF and Stevens RT: Identification of unmyelinated fibers in the trigeminal motor root of human and cat. Neurosci Abstr 3:494, 1977.
4. Young RF: Evaluation of dorsal column stimulation in the treatment of chronic pain. Neurosci Abstr 4:573, 1978.
5. Young RF: Trigeminal neuralgia. Western J Med 131:429, 1979.
6. Young RF and Oleson TD: Behavioral responses to dental pulp stimulation in primate. Neurosci Abstr 6:247, 1980.
7. Young RF: Pain [Letter] Surg Neurol 1980 Feb; 13(2):128.
8. Perryman KM and Young RF: Facial and dental pulp-evoked potentials in the thalamus of cynomologous monkeys performing a shock-avoidance threshold task. Neurosci Abstr 7:396, 1981.
9. Young RF: Epitome: Metastatic tumors to the spine. Western J Med 140:771, 1984.
10. Young RF and Perryman KM: Neuronal responses in rostral trigeminal brainstem nuclei of Macaque following chronic trigeminal tractotomy. Neurosci Abstr 10:797, 1984.
11. Young RF: Electrical stimulation of the brain in the treatment of chronic pain: Experience over 5 years. Current Surg 1985.
12. Young RF, Gade GF, and Grinnel V: Surgical treatment of fungal infections of the central nervous system. Current Surg 1985.
13. Young RF: Letter to editor: Poon TP and Solis OG. Sudden death due to massive intraventricular hemorrhage: Into an unsuspected ependymoma. Surg Neurol 24:63-66, 1985.
14. Young RF: Observations on facial nociception in a monkey after destruction of the rostral part of the trigeminal sensory nuclear complex. (Letter) Pain 1985 Oct; 23(2):204-206.
15. Young RF: Laser versus radiofrequency lesions of the DREZ. (Letter) J Neurosurg 1986 Feb; 64(2):341.
16. Young RF: Cerebellar hemorhage. (Letter) Surg Neurol 1986 Feb; 25(2):198.
17. Young RF: Dorsal root entry zone lesion for treatment of deafferentation pain: Clinical and laboratory studies. J Neurological Research, 1987, abstract.
18. Young RF: Chronic benign pain: Epitomes of progress. Western J Med 145:83-90, 1986.
19. Young RF: Electrical stimulation of the brain for treatment of chronic pain: Experience 1978 - 1986. Pacific Coast Surgical Association meeting, 1987.
20. Young RF, Rodriguez JL, Rinaldi P, and Bloomfield S: Evidence for a noradrenergic mechanism for pain relief by electrical stimulation in certain brain sites in humans. American Association of Neurological Surgeons, Annual Meeting, April 24-28, 1988, abstract.
21. Young RF, Chaparro M, Shen V, Katz J, and Smith M: Chromosomal alterations in human brain tumors. Neurosurg 24:636, 1989, abstract.
22. Shen V, Walter B, Cain M, Young RF, Katz J, and Smith M: Extraskeletal chondrosarcoma with /a/ allele loss in chromosome 22 and chromosome 10. Third International Workshop on Chromosomes in Solid Tumors, February 26-28, 1989, abstract.
23. Young RF: Comments on publication: Kumar K, Wyant G, and Nath R: Deep brain stimulation for control of intractable pain in humans, present and future: A ten-year follow-up. Neurosurg 26:781-82, 1990.
24. Young RF, Rinaldi P, Albe-Fessard D, and Chodakiewitz J: Single units recorded from intralaminar thalamic nuclei in patients with deafferentation pain exhibit hyperactivity. Neurosci abstr 1990.
25. Young RF: Book review - Neurosurgical and Medical Management of Pain: Trigeminal Neuralgia, Chronic Pain, and Cancer Pain.Brisman R, editor. J Neurosurg 72:670, 1990.
26. Rinaldi P, Young RF, and Tronnier VM: Bursting activity of thalamic neurons recorded from chronic pain patients is modified by electrical stimulation in P.V.G. Neurosci abstr 17:1560, 1991.
27. Young RF, Tronnier VM, Rinaldi P: Chronic stimulation of the nucleus Kolliker fuse region for relief of intractable pain in humans. Neurosci abstr 17:1043, 1991.
28. Lis-Planells M, Neeve J, Rinaldi P, Tadir Y, Berns M, Young RF: Evaluation of the excimer laser for dorsal root entry zone lesions: A biological model. American College of Surgeons annual meeting, January 22-24, 1993, abstract.
29. Young RF, Rand RW, Jacques DB, Copcutt B.: Stereotactic medial thalamotomy with the Leksell Gamma Knife for treatment of chronic pain. Acta Neurochir, 122:177, 1993, abstract.
30. Cojocaru TT, Young RF: Study of MRI field distortion using a Stereotactic Phantom model. America Association of Neurological Surgeons annual meeting, April 9-14, 1994.
31. Young RF: Book Review, The Headaches, Olesen, Tfelt-Hansen, Welch eds. Neurosurgery, 35:4, 1994.
32. Young RF: comments on “?-Thalamotomy with a Computerized Brain Atlas: Technical Case Report”, Otsuki, Jokura, Takahashi, Ishikawa, Yoshimoto, Kimura, Yoshida, Miyazawa. Neurosurgery, 35:4, 1994.
33. Young RF: Gamma Knife Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia. American Association of Neurological Surgeons Section on Pain Newsletter, Issue 2,Volume 1, Fall, 1994.
34. Young RF: comments on “Brain Stimulation in the Management of Persistent Pain”, Gybels, Kupers. Operative Neurosurgical Techniques, Schmidek and Sweet, eds., W.B. Saunders, 3rd edition: 1399-1401, March, 1995.
35. Young, RF: comments on “Transcranial Magnetic Coil Stimulation of Motor Cortex in Patients with Central Pain”, Migita, Uozumi, Arita, Monden, Neurosurgery, 36:1040, 1995.
36. Young RF: Propofol (Diprivan). (Letter) Neurosurg 1995 Jul; 37(1):160-161.
37. Young, RF: comments on “Early Postoperative Appearance of Radiofrequency Lesions on Magentic Resonance Imaging”, DeSalles, Brekhus, DeSouza, Behnke, Farahani, Anzai, Lufkin, Neurosurgery, 36:936-937, 1995.
38. Young RF, Posewitz A: Accuracy of stereotaxis. (Letter; Comment) Comment in: J Neurosurg 1995 Aug; 83(2):271-276 and J Neurosurg 1996 Feb; 84(2):303-304.
39. Young, RF, Posewitz, A: comments on “Magnetic resonance image-directed stereotactic neurosurgery: use of image fusion with computerized tomography to enhance spatial accuracy, J. Neurosurgery, 84:303-304, 1996.
40. Rinaldi PC, Parker ES, Chodakiewitz J, Young RF, “Cognitive effects of left medial thalamic stimulation in two patients with deep brain electrodes for relief of chronic pain”, Abstracts for Neuroscience 1996.
41. Young RF: comments on “Cervical central cord syndrome involving the spinal trigeminal nucleus: a case report”, HS Chang, Surgical Neurology, 44:239-240, 1996.
42. Young RF: letter to the editor RE: “Surgery versus radiosurgery in the treatment of brain metastases”, J. Neurosurg 84:748-754, 1996.
43. Young RF: Surgery or radiosurgery. (Letter; Comment) J Neurosurg 1997 Jan; 86(1):167-168; Discussion 169-170 and J Neurosurg 1996 May; 84(5):748-754.
44. Young RF: Book Review, Trigeminal Neuralgia, JM Zakrzewska, Neurosurgery, 40:417, 1997.
45. Young RF: comments on “Extracranial radiaiton doses in patients undergoing gamma knife radiosurgery.” C Yu, Neurosurg 41:559 Sept. 1997.
46. Young RF comments on “Effect of anode-cahode configuration on paresthesa coverage in spinal cord stimulation.” D Sakas, Neurosurg 41:660 Sept. 1997
47. Young RF: Letter to the editor, reply to Hochman MS: jaw clenching following Gamma Knife treatment for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurology 1998 Apr; 50(4):1193-1194.
47. Young RF: comments on “Relief of trigeminal neuralgia after percutaneous refrogasserian glyceral rhizolysis is dependent on normalizaiton of abnormal temporal summation of pain without general impairment of sensory perception.” P Eide, Neurosurg 43:472 Sept 1998.
48. Young RF: comments on “Trigeminal Neuralgia resulting form infarction of the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve: Case report.” A Golby, Neurosurg 43:622 Sept. 1998.
49. Young RF: comment on “Trigeminal neuropathic pain: Pathophysiological mechanisms examined by quantitative assessment of abnormal pain and sensory perception.” P Eide, Neurosurg 43:1109 Dec. 1998.
50. Young RF: comments on “Image-guided robotic radiosurgery.” Adler, JR, etal., Neurosurg 44:1306, 1999.
51. Young RF: comments on “Bilateral cingulotomy for chronic pain.” Wilkinson, H., etal, Neurosurg 45:1134, 1999.
52. Young, RF comments on “Experimental Trigeminal Nerve Radiosurgery” Kondzilka, et al., Neurosugery vol. 46, no 4: 977, April 2000.
53. Young, RF “Dosimetry of a novel rotating gamma system for stereotactic radiosurgery” 16:30-17:30 Oral Session – OS26 – Physics 2. 11:30-12:30 Oral Session – OS15 – Functional 2 – Pain, Movement Disorders, Epilepsy. Wednesday 11 May 2011.
54. Young, RF “Functional neurosurgery with the gamma knife: 17 years experience. 10:30-11:30 Oral SE 11:30-12:30 Plenary Session PS-2 – Special lecturers, Oral Presentations & Invited Conference. Monday 9 May 2011.
CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS
1. Outcome study of Gamma Knife treatment for multiple brain metastases. With D. S. Jacques, M.D.,
2. Outcome study of Gamma Knife treatment for chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease and
trigeminal neuralgia. Funded by Elekta AB.
3. Radiobiology of functional lesions made with the Gamma Knife.