All skin cancers are not alike, and melanoma, a malignant cancer of pigmented skin cells (melanocytes), is by far the most dangerous of the group, accounting for over 75% of skin cancer deaths in the United States. This amounts to about 48,000 melanoma related deaths world wide per year.
Found early, when the lesion is superficial and small, cure rates are high, but as the cancer progresses, it invades deeper into the skin, and becomes far more likely to spread far from where it started. It is for this reason that ...
How do we find early cancers?
Some cancer screenings can be done yourself at home at essentially no cost or risk. This includes regular self-examination of the breasts, testicles and skin. Home fecal occult blood testing can also be done to screen for colorectal cancer. Additional information on cancer screening and self-examinations can be found on websites such as www.cancer.org or www.webmd.com.
Other screening requires medical interventions. There is good evidence that well-targeted screening saves lives. However, screening tests such as mammography, colonoscopy and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) are ...
Thyroid nodules are extremely common and studies have shown that about half of us have at least one!
Fortunately, most of these nodules do not pose any health risks. Not all thyroid nodules are benign, however, and in a minority of cases (about 5-15%) may contain a cancer. The challenge, of course, is figuring out which nodules are cause for concern and which ones are not.
With increased use of high-resolution imaging, more nodules are being identified today than ever before. It is also not uncommon for someone to learn they have a nodule “incidentally” after a CT scan, MRI or ultrasound that was performed for some other medical reason.
If you think you may have a thyroid nodule, or if one has been found incidentally by medical imaging, you should make an appointment to see your doctor. Your doctor will likely take several steps, including:
In recent years, the colors of October seem to have changed from red, orange, and gold to pink, pink and more pink. I have always loved pink, well before becoming a breast cancer surgeon, but like many of us, I find the pink of October overwhelming, especially at this point in the month.
I appreciate and endorse the continued focus on breast cancer, but often the important information is drowned out by the rah-rah-rah of the awareness campaigns. Many women (and men) are “aware” of breast cancer, but never truly become aware of what it really is, what it really means, until they find themselves dealing with the cold terror of a palpable mass or a call-back after mammogram. They need information, not just pink blenders.
Breast cancer is ...
I recently attended the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) meeting, a consortium of research institutions doing clinical trials on cancer. The conference highlighted how new research will remarkably affect cancer survivorship, quality of life (QOL), integrative care and our ability to predict and provide needed services more accurately and with greater cost effectiveness for cancer survivors. The tools for implementing cancer control are evolving quickly.
Here are some highlights from the meeting:
- Biomarkers, which are any human characteristics that are measurable including everything from gene expression (or over-expression) to pain surveys, can potentially predict long term survival as well as the specific services that will most benefit patients.
- Symptoms that are increasingly predictable by biomarker assays include fatigue, insomnia, pain, anorexia, nausea, depression and others. This means that we will soon be able to better predict the patients who will be affected by these problems and deliver interventions much earlier and more effectively.
- Patient satisfaction is frequently not related to treatment outcome. Factors such as QOL and survivorship are important.
- Lung cancer patients suffer inordinately high, long-term QOL deficits. Many of these respond well to interventions but interventions are frequently not provided to patients with lung cancer.
- Symptom clusters ...
October is Breast Cancer Awareness month. Sports teams are wearing pink, survivors are telling their stories, and pink ribbons are everywhere. Women battling the disease and people who care for them are educating others about the importance of early detection. People who may never have been personally touched by breast cancer are showing their support by volunteering, raising funds for research and getting involved in other ways. It is a world of PINK! And that’s a good thing.
But……sometimes it feels like we spend so much time talking about breast cancer we forget to talk about our general health. Breasts are important, but so is the rest! There are things you can do to both decrease your risk of breast cancer and improve your health overall:
- Get moving! You don’t have to run marathons. Even moderate walking 30 min, 4-5 days a week is beneficial. Adding resistance or weight training is ideal. Life is busy, but if you look you will find ways to fit exercise into your daily routine. You’ll be decreasing cancer risk and preventing osteoporosis. Plus, inactive women have more heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and depression than active woman.
Maintain a healthy weight. It can make a big difference - especially avoiding weight gain after menopause. Keeping your body mass index (BMI) <25 is ideal. (Click here for a tool to help calculate your BMI). Gaining even 20lbs during the course of adulthood has been shown to increase risk of breast cancer for some women.
- Eat a healthy diet that is high in:
A palpable neck lump in any patient should raise some concern. In the case of a pediatric patient, the concern may be less, since reactive and infectious nodes in the neck can be fairly common in children. When a child has a bad episode of pharyngitis, tonsillitis (sore throat), or even a bad cold, the lymph nodes of the neck may react and become enlarged. In that type of scenario, your doctor should prescribe appropriate antibiotics to resolve the enlarged lymph nodes and follow up to make sure that the nodes have regressed.
Very few pediatric neck masses will end up being concerning. Besides infectious neck lymph nodes as stated above, some of the other more common causes of pediatric neck mass are congenital cysts. However, none of the pediatric neck masses should be ignored. A neck lump that persists for more than a few days should be looked at by a pediatrician.
In the adult population, a neck mass or lump can be much more concerning. Essentially when an adult patient presents to us with a neck mass, we have to fine the root cause and basically rule out a tumor. Of course, infectious lymph nodes do happen in the adult patients as well, but it is less common. Congenital cysts are also much less common in the adult patient.
The more common causes of a neck mass in the adult patient are ....
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